Monthly Archives: October 2019

Types of programming languages

monitor-933392_1920.jpg Since the programming language is artificial, various programming languages ​​can be created according to the application. Many programming languages ​​have been created so far, and some of them are programming languages ​​whose main purpose is to be understood by computers (distant from natural languages) and vice versa. There are languages. Roughly classifying program languages ​​according to how similar to natural language, there are three types: machine language, assembly language, and high-level language.

Language grammar

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 In order to communicate using words, it is necessary for the speaker and listener to have common rules about words, and to speak based on those rules and to speak. Otherwise, the listener will not understand what the speaker says. This common rule is called language grammar.

 For example, English has a basic five-sentence rule. In principle, English follows this rule. Words that do not follow this rule have no meaning as part of English, and the meaning is not conveyed to the listener.

 The programming language has the same grammar as the natural language. When a human describes a program according to the grammar and gives the program to the computer, the computer understands the program according to the same grammar and performs the described operation.

 Just as the Japanese and English grammars are different, each different programming language has its own grammar.

Alien civilization

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Yasuharu Nagura「A Message to Aliens」(2019)

 In the 1960s, American radio astronomer Frank Drake (1930 ~) devised an equation that predicts the number of civilizations that could be intercommunicated within the galaxy.

Each factor of the equation cannot be estimated almost accurately, so when calculated, the result varies greatly from less than 1 to millions, depending on the estimate.

Nevertheless, it is not unreasonable to think that there are at least a few such civilizations in the galaxy.

To calculate the Drake equation, various factors (such as the percentage of stars with planets) need to be estimated.

Next, multiply all the factors.

In the example below, we are using only rather optimistic estimates. (There are also some guesswork).

Percentage of stellar births

A reasonable number of new stars born in the galaxy is 50 per year.

A star with a planet

 Perhaps half of the new stars will have planets.

Habitable planet

 The average number of dwelling planets maybe only 0.4 per planetary system.

Planet with life

 90% of the inhabitable planets will have life.

Intellectual life

 About 10% of newly uttered life may acquire intelligence.

Communicable life

Of intellectual life, at most 10% will develop interstellar communication technology.

Life of civilization

 The average lifespan of civilization will be about 10,000 years. 

Conclusion

 Using the above estimates, the galactic system has an alien civilization that we can communicate with, theoretically about 50 × 0.5 × 0.4 × 0.9 × 0.1 × 0.1 × 10,000 = 900. Expected to be. However, some estimates may be off.

 

UFO sightings

 

Yasuharu Nagura – “A Message to Aliens” (2019)

 Unidentified flying objects (UFOs) are reported annually.

 Most of them can be explained by natural phenomena such as bright stars, meteors, aurora, and rare clouds, or artificial objects such as satellites and airplanes.

Even after removing the cause, there are cases where it cannot be explained.

Without much research, dismissing the possibility that a UFO is a sign of a visitor from outside the earth is as much as accepting that idea without considering a more general interpretation.

It will be unscientific.

Difference between a program and software

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 The difference between a program and software is that the software is all the intellectual information related to the computer, whereas the program is limited to a representation of the operation procedure of the computer. That is, the program is included in the software. In general, in the case of software, a program representing an operation procedure and data used during the execution of the program are often collectively referred to. For example, the word processor software includes font data as well as programs.

Programming and programming languages


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 To make a computer do something meaningful, it is necessary to teach the computer the procedure of the operation. Unfortunately, today’s computers can’t fully understand human language. Therefore, it is not possible to teach the computer the procedure in the language (natural language) that we usually use, such as Japanese and English.

 Therefore, instead of using a natural language, a simple language that can be understood by a computer is artificially created, and an operation procedure is expressed as a language and transmitted to the computer. This artificial language is called a programming language, and a program that expresses an operation procedure as a language of a programming language is called a program. The computer given the program operates according to the described procedure.

When a computer is operated by a program, it is the CPU that actually understands the contents of the program inside the computer and operates accordingly. The CPU is operating according to the contents described as a program. The CPU operates the entire computer by performing calculations according to the contents described as programs and controlling the input/output devices and storage devices.

Exploring life

Yasuharu Nagura – “A Message to Alliens” MV

 Various methods have been tried to identify extraterrestrial living organisms.

In the solar system, they search for traces of living organism, analyze images of planets and satellites, and send probes to potential places such as Martian and Saturn’s secondary planet called Titan.

Outside of the solar system, SENTI (Search for extraterrestrial intelligence) is the center of the survey, and various plans are being implemented, such as operating the sky to check for radio signals emitted by aliens.

Exploration has begun to see if planets resembling the Earth have orbited nearby fixed stars.

Lastly, CENTI (Communication with extraterrestrial intelligence) sends a signal to the target star and sends out the existence of Homo sapiens.

In 1974, a CENTI Arecibo message in binary code was sent to the M13 star cluster, 21,000 light-years away. The Arecibo message contains symbols representing the human body, DNA, solar system, Arecibo Observatory, etc.

In 1999, a more complex “Encounter 2001” message was sent from a Ukrainian radio telescope to some of the nearby fixed stars resembling the sun.

Even if an alien receives this message, it will take at least 100 years for us to receive a reply.

What is a programming language?

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A programming language is an artificial language created to describe a program, and its role is to convey the operating procedure to the computer. 

 Therefore, the programming language is made easy to understand for the computer. The statement is different from natural language. 

 For example, if the meaning of displaying “Hello, world” on the display is described in natural language and programming language, it becomes as follows.

 Natural language statement: 「Displays『Hello, world』on the display」

 Programming language statement: 「printf (“Hello, world”);」

This example is an example described in a programming language called C language, but there are many types of programming languages, and the writing method differs depending on each language.

A program is a program in which sentences in such a programming language are arranged in the order in which they are executed by a computer. The program is a natural language statement.

Business model of the music industry

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The world’s music market occupies 75% of the total market in five countries: America, Japan, Germany, Britain, and France.

The music industry has taken the business model of “mass production and mass consumption,” in which the performance produced by the artist is contained in a package called a CD and sold to profit.

This model produced a profit by discovering and nurturing artists, recording the artist’s music, producing a master of a CD package, copying it from there, and delivering it to the hands of consumers.

Anyone can play music, but it requires a large capital to be distributed in CD packages and distributed nationwide for mass sales.

You can not expect the benefits of living with the indie model of writing songs yourself and playing yourself, making your CDs, and selling them at your concerts or on the streets.

However, if it is a business model of mass production and mass consumption, it is also possible to aim at American Dream and one thousand dollars.

On the other hand, the spread of the Internet has presented artists with new revenue sources. In particular, the impact of innovations such as the spread of SNS and streaming has greatly affected the structure of the U.S. market itself.

For example, there was only 9% streaming in the U.S. market in 2011, but it has increased to 51% in 2016. That is half of the revenue from the U.S. music business, excluding live activities, and it comes from streaming.

In the 20th century, the artist was a star and a special being. However, the explosive spread of the Internet has created a new media and communication tool called SNS.

As a result, to get up to the status of a star until now, “power, energy, and luck” were required, but the elements of “luck” decreased, if you have the energy, it becomes possible to promote your music by yourself. So you can see that anyone could be a star.

Photography『Meteora, Greece』(2019)

Yasuharu Nagura : Photography『Meteora, Greece』(2019)

 The Meteora is a rock formation in central Greece hosting one of the largest and most precipitously built complexes of Eastern Orthodox monasteries, second in importance only to Mount Athos.

 The six (of an original twenty-four) monasteries are built on immense natural pillars and hill-like rounded boulders that dominate the local area.

 It is located near the town of Kalambaka at the northwestern edge of the Plain of Thessaly near the Pineos river and the Pindus Mountains.