Category Archives: IT

Difference between a program and software

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 The difference between a program and software is that the software is all the intellectual information related to the computer, whereas the program is limited to a representation of the operation procedure of the computer. That is, the program is included in the software. In general, in the case of software, a program representing an operation procedure and data used during the execution of the program are often collectively referred to. For example, the word processor software includes font data as well as programs.

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Programming and programming languages


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 To make a computer do something meaningful, it is necessary to teach the computer the procedure of the operation. Unfortunately, today’s computers can’t fully understand human language. Therefore, it is not possible to teach the computer the procedure in the language (natural language) that we usually use, such as Japanese and English.

 Therefore, instead of using a natural language, a simple language that can be understood by a computer is artificially created, and an operation procedure is expressed as a language and transmitted to the computer. This artificial language is called a programming language, and a program that expresses an operation procedure as a language of a programming language is called a program. The computer given the program operates according to the described procedure.

When a computer is operated by a program, it is the CPU that actually understands the contents of the program inside the computer and operates accordingly. The CPU is operating according to the contents described as a program. The CPU operates the entire computer by performing calculations according to the contents described as programs and controlling the input/output devices and storage devices.

What is a programming language?

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A programming language is an artificial language created to describe a program, and its role is to convey the operating procedure to the computer. 

 Therefore, the programming language is made easy to understand for the computer. The statement is different from natural language. 

 For example, if the meaning of displaying “Hello, world” on the display is described in natural language and programming language, it becomes as follows.

 Natural language statement: 「Displays『Hello, world』on the display」

 Programming language statement: 「printf (“Hello, world”);」

This example is an example described in a programming language called C language, but there are many types of programming languages, and the writing method differs depending on each language.

A program is a program in which sentences in such a programming language are arranged in the order in which they are executed by a computer. The program is a natural language statement.

Color representation on a computer

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First, let’s consider how colors are expressed on the computer screen. A computer screen is like a table with vertical and horizontal units of pixels. The pixels that are the smallest units that make up this computer screen are further decomposed into red, green, and blue lights. It is possible to express all the colors by mixing the three colors of “Light’s three primary colors” with this three colors of red-green-blue. The three primary colors of light are called “RGB color model” by taking initial letters of red, green and blue. The computer display adjusts the brightness of each RGB to express the color for each pixel.

It should be noted that the RGB color model is different from mixing colors with paint. The three primary colors of light are said to be “additive color mixing”, and colors are added when mixed. When RGB is added at maximum brightness, the mixed color results in white. On the other hand, color mixing of paint is called “subtractive color mixing” and colors are mixed by blocking the original light. Therefore, the three primary colors that are the basis of composition are also made up of cyan, magenta, and yellow, unlike light. The ink’s three primary colors are called “colorant’s three primary colors,” taking the initials of the colors and abbreviated as CMY. In the case of actual printing, black ink (Key Plate), which expresses more natural colors, is also added, and it is called “CMYK”.

Today’s typical displays can represent 24-bit color information per pixel. This 24-bit information is divided into three equal parts, and the gradation of color is assigned to each of RGB by 8 bits. A bit is a value represented by a binary number such as 0 or 1. In the case of 8 bits, it means that the information of 00000000〜1111111 can be handled in a binary number. Converting this into a decimal number we are normally familiar with results in 0-255, meaning that it can represent 256 levels of gradation including 0. Since each RGB can represent 256 gradations, the number of colors that can be expressed as a result of the color mixing is 16,777,216 (256 ^ 3 or 2 ^ 24).

What is openFrameworks?

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 If you translate the name openFrameworks directly, you can interpret it as “an open framework”. First of all, consider this word “framework”. The framework is generally understood as a “framework” or “mechanism”. However, when we use the term framework in the software area, we mean software that brings together frequently used functions when developing an application and that functions as a basis for application development. In other words, the framework is a framework that allows you to re-use frequently used general-purpose functions and concentrate on developing only the parts you need.

Various frameworks depending on the application. Frameworks are developed and used in various fields, such as frameworks for manipulating databases and frameworks for developing web applications.

openFrameworks is a framework that specializes mainly in producing interactive content and media art. Many complicated processes are involved in producing multi-contents, such as 2D and 3D figures and drawings, animations, sound recording and playback, video capture and playback, mouse and keyboard interactions, network usage, etc… You have to spend a lot of effort to get to the core part where you want to express your project. However, by using openFrameworks, most of such troublesome tasks can be realized by calling simple instructions, and it is possible to concentrate on more creative parts. With the power of openFrameworks, it is possible to create media artworks and interactive designs much more easily.

openFrameworks can be run on Mac OS X, Windows, Linux, and it is also possible to export a project as an iPhone / iPad application or an Android application.

The number of followers does not guarantee credit.

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When the net increased in strength, a new phenomenon occurred again. The former mass media began to choose “people who are focused on the net” as the sender. Televisions, newspapers, books, and etc… are now used as speakers for people who earn “interest” on the net, such as “number of page views on blog”, “number of followers on Twitter”, and “number of friends on Facebook”. When the old media were eaten by the Internet at the time, profitability was deteriorating. The numbers that show net interest have come to be used as a forecast indicator of how much “selling” (viewing rates, number of purchases, and etc…) you can earn. Specifically, in the publishers’ meeting, which determines the availability of the plan, numbers on the net such as “the number of page views on blog” and “the number of followers on Twitter” are often emphasized as “reference figures for forecasting sales”. In other words, online value judgment has flowed into old media.

However, as a matter of fact, numbers do not guarantee quality. It is not always the case that the sender with high net interest index emits “high quality speech”. There is no correlation between the two, as high net-interested senders send more accurate facts. Rather, some of the sendors say, “ flaming (internet) marketing “, “We’re going to show off arrogant distractions and complaints that are likely to cause repulsion, and contents that are contrary to the facts, and draw attention and earn numbers.”

In this way, as the index of “net attention” spreads to the old media side, the senders of the old media side are also mixed with boulders. The classification of “professional speechist from high literacy class” or “popular person” as in the pre-Internet era disappeared. You can see the phenomenon that “experts” say something out of the question, that “journalist” is not the fact, and just say the opinion instead of the fact, etc. on a daily basis.

The standards are confused as to how much the sender should be trusted. The confusion is not only the Internet. The same is true for the old media side, where the Internet’s value standard has flowed in principle. Whether you are a real speaker or a message on the old media, you do not know whether you can trust it as a fact unless you scrutinize what you say. It was such a bothersome time.

A way to suspect information senders

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There are too many information senders. If it is the exact fact, anyone can say.

On the other hand, the confusing thing is that the number of “senders” has exploded in the age of the Internet. In addition, they claim that they have “predominance” that many say. In some cases, “parties” and “witnesses” may claim to be sending information directly. Some have argued that literacy is high, such as “experts” and “researchers”. However, many of them are “self-proclaimed”, so we don’t know what to trust. We have to check it ourselves. How should this problem be solved?

In the old media era, the number of people who can transmit information in mass media was limited. A company employee based on a lifetime employment system that belongs to a mass media company such as newspaper, television, radio, and publishing company. Scholars, researchers, lawyers, critics, novelists, etc. who are given a chance to speak to such mass media. It was “professional speechist” who is a profession to say in mass media in all. Mainly “high literacy layer”. On the other hand, there were actors, singers, musicians, talents, and etc. who can appear in mass media by “popularity” and “notice”.

Mass media companies acted as gatekeepers to select “senders”. “You can trust this person on the premise that it is a fact,” they promised to readers and viewers. They screened the credibility. As expected, publishers and newspapers have secured the credibility of senders as “organizations”. So, even now, when a weekly magazine article or TV show is accused of defamation, publishers and television stations will be sued with the author. The responsibility of such mass media companies and organizations is called “editing responsibility”.

In addition, human resources (actors, singers, musicians, talents, and etc.) who say, “This person is a popular person but not a person who expects the accuracy of facts” have revealed such attributes. The media and fields to be posted were divided and packaged for the reader. For example, in critics of politics and economics, readers demand accuracy. We do not ask for nude photos at the beginning of the weekly photos and sports newspaper. There was such “indication of the credibility level by a package”. Readers and viewers also understood such “display” in a long time.

If readers and viewers see that “a mass media company guarantees the sender’s credit” from the viewpoint of readers and viewers, it will be recognized that people whose speech is posted in mass media are considered to be highly trusted. Therefore, it was a privilege to be chosen by mass media. It was also the privilege of mass media companies to decide “who should be the sender.”

However, no one on the Internet needs to be “chosen.” If you decide that you want to “speak publicly”, you can just upload your own blog, SNS, or YouTube and write your own statement or expression. That’s it. Thus, the mass media’s “privilege of choosing a sender” has disappeared. At the same time, the “privileges that are selected” for the sender also disappeared.

Conversely, “organizations and gatekeepers that secure credit” and “packages that display credit level” have disappeared.

How to spread abroad

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The Internet is connected to the whole world. However, unfortunately, in Japan, I still feel that the benefits of globality are not often used.

Many artists have the ambition to ultimately want to be active in the world.

But in order to make it happen, it must be known in the world. To put it the other way around, increasing awareness in the world means that opportunities for overseas activities are greatly expanded.

However, before the advent of the Internet, delivering information overseas was a daunting skill. Even if there was a connection with overseas media, the space for publishing was limited, and it was almost impossible to publish unless there was much topicality.

But, now is the age of the Internet. If you look at the sites of the world, there are many sites that handle music information. At the same time, it is also segmented by genre, so you can choose the media according to the musicality and user target.

So how do you approach it? This is not really difficult. When publishing information, it will be the key to success to put together an easy-to-understand catch and information about what kind of music it is. Of course, translation into the language of each country is necessary, but it is easier to transmit simple words that appeal to emotions than using difficult grammar.

Social media is not an end but a means.

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There are things that you can and can not do with social media marketing. There will be more artists working on social media marketing in the future. That said, no one needs to work on social marketing. There are artists who are compatible with social media and those who are not. If you do social media marketing, understanding and practicing that social media is not a magic wand has the potential to deliver great results when you see it over the medium and long term. You are

However, one thing to remember is that social media marketing is not an end but a means. The purpose is to increase the number of “likes” on the Facebook page to 10,000. What did you do by increasing the number of “likes” on the Facebook page to 10,000?

The same is true for the number of PV plays. You must be careful not to fall into the purpose of the means.

What is a social graph?

communication-instagram-lg-35177.jpgNow, we are explosively increasing in the amount of information, and we are in a state of excessive information because we can not know the information. Most of the information is noise and through information for consumers.

So who would you like to hear? Will it arrive? Will you be interested? That is the recommendation of your trusted friend, acquaintance, and word of mouth. Many people are not interested in keeping “too much” information around them. Among them, what is enough to have an interest or interest is the connection between people whom you trust (friends, acquaintances), that is human relationships. The one that visualizes your relationship diagram on the web is called “social graph”. There is great value in social media.

The first value of social graph in social media is the ability to visualize one’s own relationships. Until now, it was not possible to visualize human relationships. There was a truly realistic word of mouth that was not visible. With the development of social media, it became possible to see the “words” that would disappear if they were emitted, and also whether “who” went or “connected with whom”.

The second is that the words of your trustee flow as information on social media.

Social media is a place where people are connected, “shared” with each other, and raised their voices, instead of being exposed to information that flows in a single direction like mass media. “from whom” you got information It is worthwhile to choose what to acquire. That, “from whom” is very important.

In the space of social media, a world of its own exists. It is a world of its own where nobody is involved. Content that makes up the world is content, but it is the friends and acquaintances that you trust to carry it, and social graphs that connect it.

The era of traditional “search” was “the era when you find it difficult to find information”. However, social media is changing the times. It is “the time when information comes to find you”.

So what kind of user behavior will this social media era be like? It starts with the presence of a sense of purpose. There is not much clear sense of purpose for spending time on social media. We are more interested in what our social graph friends and acquaintances are doing.

The value of social media is that information flows from people you trust. Friends and acquaintances can deliver important news for you, or even important news from around the world.

Also, many people are watching Twitter and Facebook every day. People who scroll the screen do not have a clear purpose. They are watching the status and tweets of their friends and acquaintances.

And there is information that comes from your social graph. The important thing here is to encounter information “accidentally” from where there was no sense of purpose or interest, and interest is born. Why does it happen? That’s because the information is for you, not noise. It is because it is a word with the thought of a trusted friend.

Look at the information of a reliable friend. Let’s listen. Since it was good, we will RT (retweet). Share. That spreads to your own social graph, and the chain goes around, propagates to another person, and propagates through social media.

No matter how much more social media will become more popular, “search” will not be lost. That’s because it is necessary for actions with a sense of purpose not to disappear. It does not emphasize too much information from “only” social media, but it only works in a balanced way.