Category Archives: IT

Types of programming languages

monitor-933392_1920.jpg Since the programming language is artificial, various programming languages ​​can be created according to the application. Many programming languages ​​have been created so far, and some of them are programming languages ​​whose main purpose is to be understood by computers (distant from natural languages) and vice versa. There are languages. Roughly classifying program languages ​​according to how similar to natural language, there are three types: machine language, assembly language, and high-level language.

Language grammar

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 In order to communicate using words, it is necessary for the speaker and listener to have common rules about words, and to speak based on those rules and to speak. Otherwise, the listener will not understand what the speaker says. This common rule is called language grammar.

 For example, English has a basic five-sentence rule. In principle, English follows this rule. Words that do not follow this rule have no meaning as part of English, and the meaning is not conveyed to the listener.

 The programming language has the same grammar as the natural language. When a human describes a program according to the grammar and gives the program to the computer, the computer understands the program according to the same grammar and performs the described operation.

 Just as the Japanese and English grammars are different, each different programming language has its own grammar.

Difference between a program and software

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 The difference between a program and software is that the software is all the intellectual information related to the computer, whereas the program is limited to a representation of the operation procedure of the computer. That is, the program is included in the software. In general, in the case of software, a program representing an operation procedure and data used during the execution of the program are often collectively referred to. For example, the word processor software includes font data as well as programs.

Programming and programming languages


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 To make a computer do something meaningful, it is necessary to teach the computer the procedure of the operation. Unfortunately, today’s computers can’t fully understand human language. Therefore, it is not possible to teach the computer the procedure in the language (natural language) that we usually use, such as Japanese and English.

 Therefore, instead of using a natural language, a simple language that can be understood by a computer is artificially created, and an operation procedure is expressed as a language and transmitted to the computer. This artificial language is called a programming language, and a program that expresses an operation procedure as a language of a programming language is called a program. The computer given the program operates according to the described procedure.

When a computer is operated by a program, it is the CPU that actually understands the contents of the program inside the computer and operates accordingly. The CPU is operating according to the contents described as a program. The CPU operates the entire computer by performing calculations according to the contents described as programs and controlling the input/output devices and storage devices.

What is a programming language?

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A programming language is an artificial language created to describe a program, and its role is to convey the operating procedure to the computer. 

 Therefore, the programming language is made easy to understand for the computer. The statement is different from natural language. 

 For example, if the meaning of displaying “Hello, world” on the display is described in natural language and programming language, it becomes as follows.

 Natural language statement: 「Displays『Hello, world』on the display」

 Programming language statement: 「printf (“Hello, world”);」

This example is an example described in a programming language called C language, but there are many types of programming languages, and the writing method differs depending on each language.

A program is a program in which sentences in such a programming language are arranged in the order in which they are executed by a computer. The program is a natural language statement.

Color representation on a computer

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First, let’s consider how colors are expressed on the computer screen. A computer screen is like a table with vertical and horizontal units of pixels. The pixels that are the smallest units that make up this computer screen are further decomposed into red, green, and blue lights. It is possible to express all the colors by mixing the three colors of “Light’s three primary colors” with this three colors of red-green-blue. The three primary colors of light are called “RGB color model” by taking initial letters of red, green and blue. The computer display adjusts the brightness of each RGB to express the color for each pixel.

It should be noted that the RGB color model is different from mixing colors with paint. The three primary colors of light are said to be “additive color mixing”, and colors are added when mixed. When RGB is added at maximum brightness, the mixed color results in white. On the other hand, color mixing of paint is called “subtractive color mixing” and colors are mixed by blocking the original light. Therefore, the three primary colors that are the basis of composition are also made up of cyan, magenta, and yellow, unlike light. The ink’s three primary colors are called “colorant’s three primary colors,” taking the initials of the colors and abbreviated as CMY. In the case of actual printing, black ink (Key Plate), which expresses more natural colors, is also added, and it is called “CMYK”.

Today’s typical displays can represent 24-bit color information per pixel. This 24-bit information is divided into three equal parts, and the gradation of color is assigned to each of RGB by 8 bits. A bit is a value represented by a binary number such as 0 or 1. In the case of 8 bits, it means that the information of 00000000〜1111111 can be handled in a binary number. Converting this into a decimal number we are normally familiar with results in 0-255, meaning that it can represent 256 levels of gradation including 0. Since each RGB can represent 256 gradations, the number of colors that can be expressed as a result of the color mixing is 16,777,216 (256 ^ 3 or 2 ^ 24).

What is openFrameworks?

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 If you translate the name openFrameworks directly, you can interpret it as “an open framework”. First of all, consider this word “framework”. The framework is generally understood as a “framework” or “mechanism”. However, when we use the term framework in the software area, we mean software that brings together frequently used functions when developing an application and that functions as a basis for application development. In other words, the framework is a framework that allows you to re-use frequently used general-purpose functions and concentrate on developing only the parts you need.

Various frameworks depending on the application. Frameworks are developed and used in various fields, such as frameworks for manipulating databases and frameworks for developing web applications.

openFrameworks is a framework that specializes mainly in producing interactive content and media art. Many complicated processes are involved in producing multi-contents, such as 2D and 3D figures and drawings, animations, sound recording and playback, video capture and playback, mouse and keyboard interactions, network usage, etc… You have to spend a lot of effort to get to the core part where you want to express your project. However, by using openFrameworks, most of such troublesome tasks can be realized by calling simple instructions, and it is possible to concentrate on more creative parts. With the power of openFrameworks, it is possible to create media artworks and interactive designs much more easily.

openFrameworks can be run on Mac OS X, Windows, Linux, and it is also possible to export a project as an iPhone / iPad application or an Android application.

The number of followers does not guarantee credit.

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When the net increased in strength, a new phenomenon occurred again. The former mass media began to choose “people who are focused on the net” as the sender. Televisions, newspapers, books, and etc… are now used as speakers for people who earn “interest” on the net, such as “number of page views on blog”, “number of followers on Twitter”, and “number of friends on Facebook”. When the old media were eaten by the Internet at the time, profitability was deteriorating. The numbers that show net interest have come to be used as a forecast indicator of how much “selling” (viewing rates, number of purchases, and etc…) you can earn. Specifically, in the publishers’ meeting, which determines the availability of the plan, numbers on the net such as “the number of page views on blog” and “the number of followers on Twitter” are often emphasized as “reference figures for forecasting sales”. In other words, online value judgment has flowed into old media.

However, as a matter of fact, numbers do not guarantee quality. It is not always the case that the sender with high net interest index emits “high quality speech”. There is no correlation between the two, as high net-interested senders send more accurate facts. Rather, some of the sendors say, “ flaming (internet) marketing “, “We’re going to show off arrogant distractions and complaints that are likely to cause repulsion, and contents that are contrary to the facts, and draw attention and earn numbers.”

In this way, as the index of “net attention” spreads to the old media side, the senders of the old media side are also mixed with boulders. The classification of “professional speechist from high literacy class” or “popular person” as in the pre-Internet era disappeared. You can see the phenomenon that “experts” say something out of the question, that “journalist” is not the fact, and just say the opinion instead of the fact, etc. on a daily basis.

The standards are confused as to how much the sender should be trusted. The confusion is not only the Internet. The same is true for the old media side, where the Internet’s value standard has flowed in principle. Whether you are a real speaker or a message on the old media, you do not know whether you can trust it as a fact unless you scrutinize what you say. It was such a bothersome time.

A way to suspect information senders

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There are too many information senders. If it is the exact fact, anyone can say.

On the other hand, the confusing thing is that the number of “senders” has exploded in the age of the Internet. In addition, they claim that they have “predominance” that many say. In some cases, “parties” and “witnesses” may claim to be sending information directly. Some have argued that literacy is high, such as “experts” and “researchers”. However, many of them are “self-proclaimed”, so we don’t know what to trust. We have to check it ourselves. How should this problem be solved?

In the old media era, the number of people who can transmit information in mass media was limited. A company employee based on a lifetime employment system that belongs to a mass media company such as newspaper, television, radio, and publishing company. Scholars, researchers, lawyers, critics, novelists, etc. who are given a chance to speak to such mass media. It was “professional speechist” who is a profession to say in mass media in all. Mainly “high literacy layer”. On the other hand, there were actors, singers, musicians, talents, and etc. who can appear in mass media by “popularity” and “notice”.

Mass media companies acted as gatekeepers to select “senders”. “You can trust this person on the premise that it is a fact,” they promised to readers and viewers. They screened the credibility. As expected, publishers and newspapers have secured the credibility of senders as “organizations”. So, even now, when a weekly magazine article or TV show is accused of defamation, publishers and television stations will be sued with the author. The responsibility of such mass media companies and organizations is called “editing responsibility”.

In addition, human resources (actors, singers, musicians, talents, and etc.) who say, “This person is a popular person but not a person who expects the accuracy of facts” have revealed such attributes. The media and fields to be posted were divided and packaged for the reader. For example, in critics of politics and economics, readers demand accuracy. We do not ask for nude photos at the beginning of the weekly photos and sports newspaper. There was such “indication of the credibility level by a package”. Readers and viewers also understood such “display” in a long time.

If readers and viewers see that “a mass media company guarantees the sender’s credit” from the viewpoint of readers and viewers, it will be recognized that people whose speech is posted in mass media are considered to be highly trusted. Therefore, it was a privilege to be chosen by mass media. It was also the privilege of mass media companies to decide “who should be the sender.”

However, no one on the Internet needs to be “chosen.” If you decide that you want to “speak publicly”, you can just upload your own blog, SNS, or YouTube and write your own statement or expression. That’s it. Thus, the mass media’s “privilege of choosing a sender” has disappeared. At the same time, the “privileges that are selected” for the sender also disappeared.

Conversely, “organizations and gatekeepers that secure credit” and “packages that display credit level” have disappeared.

How to spread abroad

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The Internet is connected to the whole world. However, unfortunately, in Japan, I still feel that the benefits of globality are not often used.

Many artists have the ambition to ultimately want to be active in the world.

But in order to make it happen, it must be known in the world. To put it the other way around, increasing awareness in the world means that opportunities for overseas activities are greatly expanded.

However, before the advent of the Internet, delivering information overseas was a daunting skill. Even if there was a connection with overseas media, the space for publishing was limited, and it was almost impossible to publish unless there was much topicality.

But, now is the age of the Internet. If you look at the sites of the world, there are many sites that handle music information. At the same time, it is also segmented by genre, so you can choose the media according to the musicality and user target.

So how do you approach it? This is not really difficult. When publishing information, it will be the key to success to put together an easy-to-understand catch and information about what kind of music it is. Of course, translation into the language of each country is necessary, but it is easier to transmit simple words that appeal to emotions than using difficult grammar.